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History of Painting and Sculptue

acrylic.  Quick-drying emulsion based paint, usually thinned.

Baroque.  Extravagant and emotional style noted for its detail, vivid colours and movement.

Byzantine.  Stylized, religious mosaics used in wall and floor decoration, formal paintings and icons.

cartoon.  Full sized draft of a painting.

Celtic.  Ornamental crosses, metalwork and pottery decorated with intricate designs and stylized plants and animals.

Classical.  Sculptures reflecting serenity and movement, portraiture, frescoes and mosaics.

fresco.  Wall painting where the paint is applied to damp plaster.

Gothic.  Monumental, religious sculpture, the identifying mark of which was the Gothic sway, an S shaped curve in the body.

gouache.  Opaque water colours.

impasto.  Thickly applied oil paints.

Impressionism.  The use of light and colour painted 'live' directly onto the canvas.

intaglio.  Any process that involves metal removal from a printing plate: engraving, etching, aquetint and mezzotint.

lithography.  Printing process.  The design is drawn on the printing plate with grease based materials the surface wetted and ink applied.  The ink is repelled by the water and drawn to the grease.

lost wax process.  A wax model is coated in a refractive paste and heated until the wax melts and runs out.  A cast can now be made using the hollow mould.

modelling.  Three dimensional figures built up with clay, plaster or wax around a wood or wire frame.

mural.  Paints applied directly to a wall.

oil.  Ground pigments mixed with natural oils and applied to a canvas.

pastel.  Dry pigments mixed with a dry gum, easily applied but needs to be protected with a lacquer of resin.

Renaissance.  Revival of classical Greek art.

Romanticism.  Neo-classicism rebellion embodying purity of the soul.  Much use of light and primary colours:

sand casting.  A model is encased in a sand mould which is then split, the model removed and molten metal poured into the reassembled mould.

still life.  Painting of inanimate objects.

tempera.  Pigments mixed with egg yolk and water, widely used before the introduction of oils.

water colour.  Dry pigments mixed with a gum, thinned with water and applied to fine paper.

wood carving.  The availability of wood determines the type of carving.  For most woods the design follows the grain but boxwood allows carving in any direction.

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